"deterrent of massive retaliatory power".
President Eisenhower had decided that America's nuclear arsenal should be the "primary means" of defense against the communist world.
The former Commander of Allied Expeditionary Forces in World War II also believed that the nuclear deterrent would be a less costly means of defense.
The memorandum, which is now declassified and in the public domain, reflected United States government policy on the inclusion of tactical nuclear weapons.
"Our priority will be to establish a United States/United Kingdom force..."
The memo also stated that arrangements for the multilateral management of this force would include representatives of the government of West Germany.
The President justified this decision on the basis of national security, principles of democracy and national sovereignty.
At the beginning of 1965, the number of United States military advisers in South Vietnam had reached 200,000.
Draft quotas had doubled.
By the year's end, there were 400,000 American military personnel in the Southeast Asian nation.
BIG FOUR MEETS
The "Big Four" representatives included...
Georges Clemenceau of France
David Lloyd George of Britain
Vittorio Orlando of Italy
Woodrow Wilson of the United States
Breaking with traditional diplomacy, German representatives were not invited to this preliminary round of talks.
The meetings also excluded representatives from smaller as well as neutral nations.
FIRST WOMAN ELECTED TO SENATE
Little Rock, Arkansas (JFK+50) Eighty-two years ago today, January 12, 1932, the first woman became a Senator of the United States by special election.
Ophelia Wyatt Caraway, an Arkansas Democrat, was born near Bakerville, Tennessee.
Mrs. Caraway had first been appointed to fill the vacant seat left by her husband's death.
Senator Caraway would be re-elected in 1938 and in 1944, she was appointed to serve on the Federal Emergency Compensation Commission by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.