Monday, March 23, 2015



Richmond, Virginia (JFK+50) Virginia's famous statesman and orator, Patrick Henry, spoke in support of his resolutions to organize the militia and put the colony in a state of defense before the Virginia Convention 240 years ago today, March 23, 1775, here in Richmond.

Patrick Henry, speaking at St. John's Church, said...

"This is no time for ceremony.  The question before the House is one of awful moment for this country.  For my own part, I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery.

I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided; and that is the lamp of experience.  I know of no way of judging the future but by the past.  And judging by the past, I wish to know what there has been in the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years, to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves, and the House?

Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation?  Let us not deceive ourselves, sir.  These are the implements of war and subjugation; the last arguments to which kings resort.

Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne.

We must fight!  I repeat it, sir, we must fight!  An appeal to arms and to the God of Hosts is all that is left to us!

There is no retreat but in submission and slavery!  Our chains are forged! 
Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston!  The war is inevitable and let it come!  I repeat it, sir, let it come."

Mr. Henry concluded in what would become the most famous lines of his speech....

"Gentlemen may cry: peace! peace! but there is no peace.  The war is actually begun.  Is life so dear, or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery?  No!  Forbid it Almighty God.  I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!"


"Give Me Liberty Or Give Me Death," Colonial Williamsburg,

"Sketches of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry," by William Wirt, 1836.


Lahore, Pakistan (JFK+50) Mrs. John F. Kennedy was the guest 53 years ago today, March 23, 1962, of Mohammad Ayub Khan, President of the Republic of Pakistan.

The First Lady was the President's guest at the Pakistan National Horse and Cattle Show held at the Shalimar Gardens* which dated back 320 years.

Ayub Khan, Sadar and Mrs. Kennedy
Lahore, Pakistan
Photo by Cecil Stoughton (1962)
JFK Library Image

Mrs. Kennedy said:

"All my life I've dreamed of coming to the Shalimar Gardens.

I only wish my husband could be with me and that we had something as romantic to show President Ayub when he came to our country."

The President presented Mrs. Kennedy with a special gift:  a jet black horse named "Sardar".

*Shalamar Gardens was completed in 1642.  It is laid out in the form of an oblong parallelogram and surrounded by a high wall of brick.  The gardens include 410 fountains and a wide variety of trees.

Mrs. Kennedy with "Sardar"