UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION ADOPTED 226 YEARS AGO TODAY IN PHILADELPHIA
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (JFK+50) The United States Constitution was adopted and signed by 39 delegates of the Constitutional Convention 226 years ago today, September 17, 1787, at the State House here in Philadelphia.
55 delegates from 12 of the 13 states, all except Rhode Island, attended the Constitutional Convention from May through September 1787.
The Convention's sessions were closed to the press and the public and when the delegates became deadlocked on the specifics of representation of the people in the government, they were able to compromise and settle on a two house legislature with the House of Representatives determined by population and the Senate determined by equal representation.
The delegates agreed to abandon the principle of a federation of states and put in place a centralized federal system. It would be a novel form of federalism, however, with shared power and dual lawmaking by both state and national governments.
Unlike the Articles of Confederation which it replaced, the Constitution provides for an executive of the federal government, the President of the United States.
The Constitution, however, would not become the law of the land until conventions of 9 of the 13 states ratified the document.
The Constitution, consisting of a preamble and seven articles, was ratified on June 21, 1788 and went into effect on March 4, 1789.
"We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America."
Signing of the US Constitution
Painting by Howard Chandler Christy
Advanced Placement U.S. History Lecture Notes, by John White, Carter High School, Knoxville, Tennessee, 2009.
JFK SPEAKS TO CONFERENCE ON EXPORTS
Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) President John F. Kennedy delivered a major address to the members of the White House Conference on Exports 50 years ago today, September 17, 1963, at the Mayflower Hotel here in the Nation's Capital.
The President said...
"It is our hope that out of this meeting will come not only a very candid consideration of what we as a Government are doing to assist you in developing your exports but also some proposals as to what we might do in the future which will improve this program."
"Our ratio of exports to gross national product is only 4%--about one half of what it was a century ago.
We still have a larger volume of exports than any other country (but) there is no reason why this Nation should be able to export only 4% of its GNP when Germany exports 16%, Italy 10%, Japan 9%, Sweden 19%, Switzerland 22%. and the Netherlands, a staggering 35%.
We are now committed in the Trade Expansion Act to full participation in a world market of vast dimensions."
"Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1963," United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1964.
BLOODY BATTLE FOUGHT AT ANTIETAM CREEK
Sharpsburg, Maryland (JFK+50) A bloody battle was fought near along the banks of Antietam Creek here in Maryland 151 years ago today, September 17, 1862.
The Army of the United States battled the Army of Confederate States from dawn until dusk.
The fighting began at the Dunker Church along Hagerstown Pike and then spread into a huge cornfield across the pike.
By mid-day, the battle continued to an area separating two farm fields called "Bloody Lane".
The fighting came to a close at Burnside's Bridge at Antietam Creek, and the following day General Lee led his forces back to Virginia.
Appropriately, September 17, 1862 was christened "the bloodiest day in American history."
While most military historians characterize the Battle of Antietam as a draw, President Abraham Lincoln claimed a Union victory and five days later issued his Emancipation Proclamation.
Battle of Antietam
Army of the Potomac
Kurz & Allison (1888)
CAMP DAVID PEACE ACCORDS SIGNED AT THE WHITE HOUSE 35 YEARS AGO TODAY
Washington, D.C. (JFK+50) Anwar el-Sadat of Egypt and Menachem Begin of Israel signed the Camp David Accords 35 years ago today, September 17, 1978, at the White House.
The peace agreement, negotiated by President Jimmy Carter, was worked out over 12 days of discussions at the Presidential retreat, Camp David, in Maryland.
Sadat and Begin would later be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their roles in the peace agreement between their two nations.
Sadat, President Carter, Begin
Camp David, Maryland
HONEY FITZ CELEBRATED BOSTON'S BIRTHDAY
Boston, Massachusetts (JFK+50) John F. "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald, former Mayor of the city of Boston, helped celebrate the city's birthday 67 years ago today, September 17, 1946. on radio station WDHO.
September 17 is widely accepted as the birthday of the city of Boston when a court of Puritans ordered the settlement to be named after the town in Lincolnshire from which many Puritans originated.
John F. Fitzgerald
Bain News Service
MARY AGNES GARGAN DIED 77 YEARS AGO TODAY IN WEST ROXBURY
Boston, Massachusetts (JFK+50) Mary Agnes Fitzgerald Gargan died 77 years ago today, September 17, 1936, of chronic hypertensive cardiorenal disease at her home at 22 May Street in West Roxbury.
The daughter of John "Honey Fitz" and Mary Fitzgerald, and sister of Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, left her husband, Joseph and children John Jr., Mary Jo, and Ann.
Joseph P. Kennedy with Ann Gargin